Chevrolet Volt Concept

tags: , , | in: Concept Cars 10 January 2007
Chevrolet Volt Concept

The Volt Concept is the first application of GM’s E-Flex System, in which electricity can be produced from different types of fuel. It is equipped with an electrical motor coupled with a compact 1-liter gasoline engine that can re-charge the battery, increasing range and fuel economy.

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Chevrolet Volt - Technical CutawayThe Chevy Volt draws from GM’s previous experience with the EV1 (1996). Compared to it, the Chevrolet Volt addresses the range problem and has room for 4-5 passengers and their luggage.

It can be fully charged by plugging it into a 110-volt outlet for approximately six hours each day. When the lithium-ion battery is fully charged, the Volt can deliver 40 city miles of pure electric vehicle range.

When the battery is depleted, a 1-liter, three-cylinder turbocharged engine spins at a constant speed to create electricity and replenish the battery, increasing fuel economy and range.

From the official Press Release:

The E-flex System

The E-flex name defines a family of drivetrain systems that can produce electricity from gasoline, ethanol, bio-diesel or hydrogen, depending on the specific market and local infrastructure.

The Volt uses a large battery and a small, 1L turbo gasoline engine to produce enough electricity to go up to 640 miles and provide triple-digit fuel economy. GM will show other variations of the propulsion systems at future auto shows.

Exterior Design

Chevrolet Volt ConceptAccording to Chevrolet, "the design challenges the notion that an environmentally conscious vehicle can’t be beautiful and possess an aesthetic spirit that matches its driving characteristics."

“We’ve leveraged our resources around the globe to develop the design aesthetic for the Volt,” said Ed Welburn, vice president, GM Global Design. “It was important that the design capture the face of Chevrolet as it’s recognized around the world.”

Design and engineering collaboration between GM designers and GE Plastics, using unique material technology and design engineering support, helped achieve the Volt’s distinctive appearance.

True to the heritage of its Chevrolet bowtie, the Volt’s exterior design suggests spirited performance and is wrapped in a stylish package, with classic Chevrolet performance cues that hint at both Camaro and Corvette.

Proportions

Chevrolet Volt ConceptSized for an urban-centric lifestyle, the Volt concept sedan carries dimensions similar to a Chevrolet Cobalt, with an overall length of approximately 170 inches (4,318 mm), a height of 52.6 inches (1,336 mm) and a width of 70.5 inches (1,791 mm).

However, the Volt’s proportions, dictated by the layout of its electrically driven powertrain system, make it distinctly different from its mainstream Cobalt sibling.

“The configuration of the drive and energy components dictated we push the front wheels forward and outward to the corners,” said Bob Boniface, design director, GM Design, and lead exterior designer.

Chevrolet Volt Concept“We wanted to keep the overall dimensions relatively small. This is an urban-centric car, so it needs to fit into small areas.”

The Volt’s proportions, combined with large wheels, wide front and rear tracks (64 inches / 163 mm, front and rear) and a tight wheel-to-body relationship, enable a sporty stance.

Other key proportional highlights include a dash-to-axle length that positions the driver far rearward of the front wheels; large 21-inch by 7.5-inch wheels; short front and rear overhangs and departure angles that deliver a sense of taut, compact energy.

Design elements

Also, the offsets between the upper glass elements and tire planes (the glass is inboard of the face of the tires) contribute to the sedan’s balanced stance and enhance the vehicle’s dynamic static image, resulting in pure, athletic proportions.

Chevrolet Volt Concept Chevrolet Volt Concept

Chevrolet Volt Concept“What’s beautiful about the proportions is that when you think about some of the competitors out there, you tend to think of those vehicles as ‘the sensible shoe,’ “ said Boniface.

“People buy environmentally friendly cars because they feel it’s the right thing to do, not necessarily because of their looks or to make a fashion statement. But the Volt is different. It’s something one would buy because it is so compelling to look at, and the fact that it has the potential to never burn any gasoline – that’s just a bonus.”

The Volt’s roof, side glass and beltline are constructed of GE Plastics transparent, glazed polycarbonate material that delivers the scratch resistance and gloss surface appearance of glass, combined with the formability of a plastic composite.

Chevrolet Volt ConceptAs a result, the Volt provides the driver and occupants with exceptional visibility, enabling a “city lights” theme in which the outside world passes through to the interior of the vehicle. Also contributing to the visibility is a shouldered, tinted side glass – constructed of the same GE polycarbonate material – that enables a dual beltline.

Key exterior panels are made with a GE Plastics composite and fit together like a well-crafted puzzle, with flowing surface-to-surface cut lines that bring a sophisticated composition and overall harmony to the Volt’s exterior appearance.

The front door hinges enable enhanced entry/egress to the vehicle, as well as a graceful, forward-leaning door cut line.

Chevrolet Volt ConceptMilled from billets of stainless steel, the hinges serve as design elements, extending into the front quarter fenders and incorporating a plug-in recharging port access on both sides of the vehicle.

The vehicle face – designed to carry a serious, confident appearance – is clearly Chevrolet, with a twin-port front grille, center-positioned bowtie and lower air intake. Horizontal headlamps with aluminum bezels deliver a jeweled appearance, leading to translucent light-emitting diode (LED) forward illumination elements.

The underside of the vehicle consists of a flat, composite molded belly pan that is integrated with the fascias and rockers for a clean, uncluttered and finished appearance.

The belly pan – which contributes significantly to the Volt’s 0.30 coefficient of drag – contributes to the sedan’s overall impression of refinement and demonstrates the design of the underbody was just as important as the upper body.

Interior Design

Chevrolet Volt interior Chevrolet Volt interior

Inside, modern technologies and materials, combined with ambient light, creats an interior environment that’s light, airy and thoughtful.

“First and foremost, this is an advanced technology vehicle that uses little or no fuel at all. But we didn’t see any reason why that should compromise its design,” said Anne Asensio, executive director, GM Design.

Asensio led the design team that created the Volt concept, with designs solicited from GM’s studios around the world.

“We wanted a size that connected with everyone, so we designed a small car,” said Asensio. “In the end, the interior design team from England inspired the final interior execution, and the exterior was the work of the Michigan advanced design team.

“Our job was to design a vehicle people could easily imagine seeing on the road,” said Asensio. “It couldn’t be a ‘science project,’ because that’s not what this car is all about. It had to be realistic, executable and carry the essence of the Chevrolet brand.”

Chevrolet Volt interior Chevrolet Volt interior

The interior environment of the Volt was "designed to appeal to an urban dweller who desires a smart, daily-use vehicle," according to Wade Bryant, design director, GM Design.

“On the interior of the Volt, you’ll find technologies, materials and an environment that enable the car to help make life simpler for a person who’s environmentally conscious and leads a city-centered lifestyle,” said Bryant.

“It’s ergonomically correct, provides connectivity to the world, and demonstrates smart responsibility through the use of lightweight, recyclable materials.”

Two such examples are the instrument panel topper and steering wheel made with GE Plastics.

According to Bryant, the interior team and the exterior designers worked closely together to make the Volt look like one vehicle. Two examples of their collaboration are the dual beltline and the door hinge that’s visible outside of the car. “We designed this as one element that comes inside the door and becomes the interior pull handle,” said Bryant. “It’s all about integration, refinement and thoughtfulness.”

Interior Features

Super Imaging is an innovative, dual-mode technology display that provides two visual levels of vehicle information to the driver in the instrument cluster.

The first level of information – configured similarly to a conventional instrument cluster – provides traditional data in the form of analog, three-dimensional (3D) LED displays, including three gauges for fuel level, speedometer, odometer, battery level and the transmission “PRNDL” indicator. The second level of information – a transparent screen positioned in front of the 3D LED displays – delivers color, animated data related to the Volt’s advanced propulsion system with a holographic-like appearance.

Super Imaging works by using invisible, fluorescent inks that are printed on the transparent screen. When illuminated by an ultraviolet (UV) laser projector located behind the instrument cluster (from the driver’s perspective), the inks become excited, and provide four-color illumination and animation.

Compression-molded foam with a textile-patterned surface layer is applied on the entire lower instrument panel, lower door trim panels and rear quarter trim areas. The material enables soft, tactile, low-gloss surfaces throughout the interior cabin that appear hand-crafted and specifically tailored to the car.

This material, used in some of the latest luggage designs, enables zippered access to traditional storage areas such as the glove box, doors, etc. The material is very inexpensive, wears well and enables flexibility in design.

Composite panels

Molded GE plastic panels provide thin, structural interior surfaces that can be cantilevered in space. The material is applied on the upper instrument panel, seat backs, center console sides and door inserts.

Light, strong, affordable and recyclable, the panels are sheathed in reconstructed scrap leather to achieve a soft, hand-crafted surface.

Use of ambient light

Chevrolet Volt ConceptThe aspect of light – from outside and within the vehicle – is played throughout the interior environment. Highlights include a transparent upper roof that provides large quantities of natural light and is enhanced with thinner pillars and rail sections; Gelcore® LED indirect lighting around the roof periphery that illuminates during evening hour entry/egress and can be seen from outside the vehicle; LED functional storage lighting that passes through transparent zippers and provides ambient light during evening hours; and conductive ink controls situated on the interior surface of the glass roof that provide touch access to lights, OnStar buttons and more.

“All the storage areas are lighted internally, and the light escapes through the clear zippers, so you’ll always be able to find your storage at night,” Bryant said. “It all adds a nice little ambient effect, and the illumination will be color-keyed to the instrumentation lighting color. It’s functional and cool, and when you open it, light from the interior storage area spills out."

“A big enabler is the transparent upper roof. It provides the Volt with more natural light than most other vehicles. It’s very distinctive and appealing.”

Design Process – Image gallery

Chevrolet Volt Concept - Design process Chevrolet Volt Concept - Design process Chevrolet Volt Concept - Design process
Chevrolet Volt Concept - Design process Chevrolet Volt Concept - Design process Chevrolet Volt Concept - Design process

The Future

Chevrolet Volt - Technical Cutaway"Today’s vehicles were designed around mechanical propulsion systems that use petroleum as their primary source of fuel." Lauckner said. "Tomorrow’s vehicles need to be developed around a new propulsion architecture with electricity in mind."

“GM is building a fuel cell variant that mirrors the propulsion system in the Chevrolet Sequel (fuel cell vehicle),” said Larry Burns, GM vice president for research and development and strategic planning.

“Instead of a big battery and a small engine generator used in the Volt, we would use a fuel cell propulsion system with a small battery to capture energy when the vehicle brakes. Because the Volt is so small and lightweight, we would need only about half of the hydrogen storage as the Sequel to get 300 miles of range.”

Future concepts might incorporate diesel generators, bio-diesel and pure ethanol (E-100).

Chevrolet Volt Concept – Technical Specifications

Overview
Body style / driveline: 4-5-passenger sedan, unitized frame, electric propulsion, front wheel drive
Construction: body-frame-integral structure with composite exterior panels and roof
EPA vehicle class compact car (four doors with rear liftgate)
Drive System

Description:

electrically driven system with onboard range extender, plug-in recharge capability

Battery system:

Type:

lithium-ion

Energy:

16 kWh (minimum)

Peak power:

130 to 140 kW

Voltage:

320 to 350

100% recharge time:

110-volt outlet:

6 to 6.5 hours

Electric traction system:

Max. electrical power:

130 to 140 kW

Max. mechanical power:

120 kW

Continuous electrical power:

45 kW

Continuous mechanical power:

40 kW

Generator:

Power:

53 kW peak power

Drive:

direct

Range extender:

Type:

3-cylinder, turbocharged engine

Size:

1L

Fuel:

gas or E85

Nominal speed:

1500 to 1800 rpm

Max speed:

3200 rpm

Fuel tank (gal / L):

12 / 54.5

Charger:

Type:

plug-in

Voltage / amp:

110 / 15

Horsepower (hp / kW):

160 / 120

Torque (lb-ft / Nm):

236 / 320

Electric mode range:

40 miles – full electric vehicle (EV) range

Estimated fuel economy @ constant state of charge:

50 mpg during charge sustaining operation

Daily usage equivalent mpg:

@ 40 miles or less:

not applicable – no fuel used

@ 60 miles:

150 mpg

@ 80 miles:

100 mpg

0 to 60 mph:

8 to 8.5 seconds

Top speed (mph)

120 (limited duration)

Powertrain

Front Suspension

independent, strut-type

Rear Suspension

semi-independent torsion beam

Steering type

electric, speed-sensitive, variable assist rack-and-pinion

Turning circle, curb-to-curb
(ft / m):

37 to 38 / 11.2 to 11.5

Brakes: electro-hydraulic power assisted; front disc, rear drum
Wheel size (in): 21 x 6.5
Tires: 195/55R21, low-rolling resistance
Dimensions
Overall length (in / mm): 170 / 4318
Height (in / mm): 52.6 / 1336
Width (in / mm): 70.5 / 1791
Interior
Seating capacity (front / rear): 2 / 2
Headroom (in / mm): front: 37.3 / 947
rear: 35.9 / 912
Legroom (in / mm): 31.5 / 802
Shoulder room (in / mm): 50.6 / 1285
Hip room (in / mm): 53.1 / 1349

(Source: Chevrolet)

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